**PHYSICS OF THERMOELECTRICITY**

This is the first volume of the four-volume edition on thermoelectricity.

The author of the book is Lukyan Ivanovych Anatychuk, a well-known scientist in thermoelectricity, Doctor of Science, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, President of the International Thermoelectric Academy.

The book consecutively, within the unified context, presents state-of-the art phenomenological theory of thermoelectricity, microscopic theory of thermoelectricity and theory of thermoelectric power conversion.

The book is comprised of 5 chapters.

**THE FIRST CHAPTER** “The phenomenological theory of thermoelectric effects” presents the thermodynamic theory generalizations in thermoelectricity, describes the physics of thermoelectric effects. The fundamental thermoelectric relations and generalizations of the first Thomson relation are presented. The most complete classification of thermoelectric effects is given. New effects are described. Recommendations on the conditions of correct effects study are given.

*The book may be useful for the realization of thermoelectricity development logics and for the prediction of thermoelectricity advantages in the future**.*

**THE SECOND CHAPTER** “The microscopic description of thermoelectric effects” presents the fundamental concepts of the microscopic theory of solid bodies: energy spectra, notions of quasi-particles, methods for kinetic coefficients calculation. Thermoelectric properties of semiconductors are described, including mechanisms of thermoEMF origination, thermoEMF anisotropy and thermoelectric effects in a magnetic field. Thermoelectric properties of metals, their alloys, organic semiconductors and possibilities of attaining high figure of merit of these materials are considered. Descriptions of the non-linear and non-local thermoelectric phenomena, effects under large temperature gradients are given. Thermoelectric effects in semiconductors are described. Thermoelectric effects in artificial media are studied; possibilities of figure of merit improvement in quantum well superlattices are described.

**THE THIRD CHAPTER** “Eddy thermoelectric currents” is the basis for the development of a generalized theory of thermoelectric power conversion. The theory of inverse problems of thermoelectricity for spatial configuration of the eddy thermoelectric current control is presented. Generalizations of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction for thermoelectric processes and the resulting non-steady thermoelectric currents are given.

*The generalizations presented in the book form new lines of thermoelectricity development.*

**THE FOURTH CHAPTER** “Thermoelectric power conversion” is dedicated to the generalized description of thermoelectric power conversion. Classification of media and fields which produce thermoelectric power conversion is given. The state of thermoelectricity development is analyzed and preferable lines of its development are formulated. Methods for discovery of new thermoelement types are presented. The efficiency of the methods is demonstrated for known thermoelements and new thermoelement types discovered by these methods.

*Particular emphasis in the book is placed on the new, yet unused possibilities of therтoelectric power conversion.*

**THE FIFTH CHAPTER** “Thermoelectric conversion of information” deals with description of thermoelectric measuring instruments. The relation between information and energy is given, informability parameter is introduced for thermoelectric measuring devices which describes thermoelectric measuring systems in the new context. The basic informability equation is represented and analyzed. Requirements to thermoelectric materials with a view to achieve maximum informability are formulated. Material optimization methods to achieve maximum informability are described. New prospects for thermoelectric measuring systems development are presented.

*The information presented in this book contributes to statement of new investigations in thermoelectricity eventually extending the possibilities of practical application of thermoelectricity. The book may be useful for investigators in thermoelectricity, designers of thermoelectric equipment, physicists of various trends, postgraduates and students, persons willing to get acquainted with thermoelectricity.*

#### **THERMOELECTRIC POWER CONVERTERS**

This is volume II of the four-volume book “Thermoelectricity”. The author is Lukyan Ivanovych Anatychuk.

The book consecutively presents power converters whose operating principle is based on the use of thermoelectric effects; the properties of the main part of converters – thermoelements, producing power conversion are described; a detailed classification of the basic thermoelement types is presented; the basic relations are given for the description of thermoelements in various model approximations and for different operating conditions – electric current generation, cooling and heating. The combination of thermoelements forms the element basis as a means of choice and practical application of thermoelectricity.

*The book is a manual for research fellows and engineers designing thermoelectric equipment; students specialized in thermoelectricity; specialists of allied fields of science and technology using thermoelectricity.*

The book is comprised of 3 chapters: “Classification of thermoelements”, “Relations for the description of thermoelements under EMF and electrical current generation”, “Relations for the description of thermoelements under thermoelectric and galvanomagnetic cooling and heating”.

*The main objective of this book is systematization of information on thermoelements.*

The book deals with a series of thermoelements that presently form the element basis of thermoelectricity. Among the described thermoelements (they are fifty) there are well known ones that have found wide application; there are elements of rather restricted application; there are also such that only demonstrate the possibility of realization of physical ideas or effects for creation of thermoelectric power converters.

The greatest attention in the book is paid to thermocouple thermoelements. Their physical models are rather detailed, considered in all operating conditions, analytical expressions for their descriptions are given, and for the cases when they cannot be obtained the respective computer calculation programs have been elaborated.

The book includes the latest programs of computer design of thermoelectric power converters assuring the necessary precision of calculations and design. Of particular interest are thermoelectric power converters of functionally-graded materials, the use of which is one of promising lines in thermoelectricity.

Based on the generalized theory of thermoelectric power conversion, the author elaborated the method of devising new thermoelement types determined not heuristically, but as a result of computer research.

Information stated in this book not only allows using the existing thermoelement types, but also is the basis for discovery of their new variants, thus extending the element basis of thermoelectricity and, respectively, the possibilities of practical applications of thermoelectricity.

*The author focuses attention on the relevant, but yet unsolved problems, therefore, the readers will readily find in the book interesting subjects for preparation and defense of dissertations.*

For more than 25 years the author of this book has productively worked for creation of new thermoelement types, has presented vast material on this subject and is pleased to share new information with the reader. The work in this direction has lead the author to creation of a generalized thermoelement model, from which, as particular cases, may flow the existing thermoelement types. The main ideas of generalized theory are stated in the first volume of the book “Thermoelectricity”. Therefore, before reading the second volume of this book it is helpful to get acquainted with the first volume. *Developers of thermoelectric products, prior to designing of specific thermoelectric devices, will find this book helpful in order to answer the question: what type of thermoelement is most suitable for creation of required thermoelectric product?*

#### METROLOGY OF THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS

#### **SEMICONDUCTORS UNDER EXTREME TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS**

The authors are Lukyan Ivanovych Anatychuk and Lev Petrovych Bulat.

Progress in solid-state electronics is related to microminiaturization of semiconductor structures. With their operation, semiconductor material is subject to more intensive effects of physical fields. In particular, the densities of energy fluxes increase which lead to generation of large power heat fluxes and to origination of large temperature gradients.

The book deals with kinetic effects in semiconductors under large temperature gradients. The mechanisms of influence of large temperature gradients on kinetic effects are studied. Theoretical methods for investigation of kinetic effects under sharp temperature nonuniformity in the homogeneous and macroscopically inhomogeneous structures are elaborated. New nonlinear and non-local kinetic effects under conditions of large temperature gradients are determined and investigated. Instruments using such effects are proposed.

**OPTIMAL CONTROL OVER THE PROPERTIES OF THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS AND DEVICES**

The authors are Lukyan Ivanovych Anatychuk and Volodymyr Oleksiyovych Semenyuk.

The monograph is dedicated to optimization of thermoelectric systems intended for cooling, heating and direct power conversion. Classification of optimization problems in thermoelectricity is given and their modern solution methods are described. The main emphasis is placed on methods based on the ideas of theory of optimal processes.

Numerous applications of theory for solution of specific optimal control problems in thermoelectricity are considered. These applications are based on consideration of thermoelectric systems as dynamic objects the evolution of which is described by differential equations in the presence of restrictions on control actions. As such actions there are considered electrical parameters, physical characteristics of material medium and the form of thermoelement external boundaries. Specific problems are discussed in Chapters 2-5. Programs for the numerical solution of these problems are given in Appendix.

The book is intended for engineers and scientists engaged in development and practical application of thermoelectric devices, as well as for teachers, post-graduates and students of respective specialties.

**LUKYAN IVANOVYCH ANATYCHUK**

DEDICATED TO 70^{TH} ANNIVERSARY

DEDICATED TO 70

^{TH}ANNIVERSARY

The book was published in 2007 in Russian, Ukrainian and English languages.

This book focuses on the research efforts and science promotional activity of Lukyan I. Anatychuk, outstanding physicist, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The book presents the basic scientific achievements of L.Anatychuk in creation of fundamentals of the generalized theory of thermoelectric power conversion and element basis of thermoelectricity, development of thermoelectric material science, theory and technology of thermoelectric devices.

The book highlights L.Anatychuk’s activity as a founder Department of Thermoelectricity in Chernivtsi State University, specialized design office of thermoelectric instrument making “Phonon”, research Institute of Thermoelectricity of the National Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, International Thermoelectric Academy.

The book includes a biographical essay of L.Anatychuk with selected photo documents, scientific-popular historical essay on the contribution of L.Anatychuk to thermoelectricity for a wide readership, as well as selected publications for scientists, engineers, post graduates and students.

**RACE WITHOUT FINISH**

“Race without finish” is a story about a talented scientist and science promoter, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, president of the International Thermoelectric Academy Lukyan Anatychuk. In many respects secret activity of L.Anatychuk and his personal modesty contributed to the fact that his name is known to a narrow circle of specialists.

An epigraph to the book is the expression by L.Anatychuk: “**Science is the same sports, the same passion for victory, only the stake is higher – the future of mankind**“.

The author of the book is Alexander Rozhen, a well-known writer, journalist and film director.

**Review of Boris PATON, president of NAS Ukraine.**

«Captivating story of remarkable scientist! In the past, literature was adorned by good books dedicated to the life of scientists, the importance of their profession. Now it is written little on that. Let us hope that the book by A.Rozhen will mark the beginning of old traditions revival. Young people should have examples worthy of imitation.»